Atlas Comics. 1950s. Certainly, Marvel went through a whole lot of backpedaling to explain not only why Captain America appeared in the 1950s, but why he was so rabidly anti-Communist. But what of the other big-name Atlas heroes?
Here's a series of Sub-Mariner covers that are notable for this same theme (except for #38, but I just had to post that, because it's an awesome cover). Some of these issues also contain Human Torch stories with the same theme.
BTW, some of these stories are worth a read. I'll try to post some soon.